Advisory panel on emergent technologies

Police has an external, independent, expert panel to provide advice and oversight from an ethical and policy perspective of emergent technologies.

The expert panel operates as a reference group to which we will refer proposed policing applications of new and emergent technology (or significant enhancements of existing technology-enabled capabilities) on an as-needs basis.

The panel’s primary role is to provide advice and oversight from an ethical and policy perspective of emergent technologies. While advice will be received and considered in confidence, Police is committed to making the expert panel’s advice public wherever possible - acknowledging this may not be possible in every case, for example where disclosure would breach commercial obligations.

This panel supports Police’s commitment to carefully weigh privacy, security, and ethical consideration before looking at adding to its technology-enabled capabilities.

This will help provide assurance to the public that any major decision has been well considered and tested through an independent group.


Biographies of the panel

Professor Colin Gavaghan

Colin is a professor in the faculty of Law at the University of Otago, where he is the inaugural Director of the Centre for Law and Policy in Emerging Technologies – a research centre based at the University of Otago which examines legal, ethical and policy issues around new technologies.

Colin researches and lectures on law and technology, as well as medical and criminal law. He has an extensive publication record; including co-authoring a major 2019 report on Government use of artificial intelligence in New Zealand and the recently published Citizens’ Guide to Artificial Intelligence (MIT Press 2021). A native of Scotland, Colin was formerly a lecturer at the University of Glasgow. Since establishing himself in New Zealand, he has served as Deputy Chair of the Advisory Committee on Assisted Reproductive Technology and is a current member of the Digital Council for Aotearoa New Zealand.


Dr Andrew Chen

Andrew is a Research Fellow with Koi Tū: The Centre for Informed Futures at Waipapa Taumata Rau - The University of Auckland. He has a technical computing background with a PhD in Computer Systems Engineering, and now focuses his research on digital technology and impacts on society, particularly through public sector use of algorithms and data.

He was a co-author on the independent expert review of facial recognition use by NZ Police, and has also written about the Algorithm Charter and the use of NZ COVID Tracer. He is also a member of the Public Advisory Committee on Disarmament and Arms Control (PACDAC), particularly relating to lethal autonomous weapons, and an independent member of the MBIE Data Science Review Board. Born and raised in Auckland, he now lives in Wellington.


Dr Marion Oswald

Marion is a lawyer and Vice-Chancellor’s Senior Fellow in Law, Northumbria University, UK. Building on her background as a practising lawyer within Government and technology companies, she has developed a particular research specialism in the use of digital technologies and data analytics within policing and the wider public sector.

She holds a number of external appointments including as Chair of the West Midlands Police and Crime Commissioner and West Midlands Police Data Ethics Committee, member of the UK National Statistician's Data Ethics Committee and Board member of the UKRI Trustworthy Autonomous Systems Hub. She is Principal Investigator and Director of the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded 'Observatory for the Monitoring of Data-Driven Approaches to Covid-19'. Marion is an Associate Fellow of the Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies.


Professor Michael Macaulay

Michael is Professor of Public Administration at the School of Government, Victoria University of Wellington. Michael’s research interests are ethics, integrity and anti-corruption within a public management and policy context. He has authored over 100 peer-reviewed papers, chapter and articles, and is Australasian and Pacific Rim regional editor for Public Management Review.

Away from academia, Michael spent seven years as a judge in the UK (Teesside Bench) and has worked with numerous international government agencies and NGOs: including the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the Council of Europe, and Transparency International. Within New Zealand, he has co-authored evaluations on NZ Police and the State Services Commission. He has advised State Services Commission, Serious Fraud Office, Ministry of Justice, and numerous other agencies on anti-corruption, workplace misconduct and whistleblowing.


Associate Professor Khylee Quince (Ngapuhi/Te Roroa/Ngāti Porou/Ngāti Kahungungu)

Khylee is an Associate Professor at the School of Law, AUT, where she teaches and researches in criminal law, youth justice and Māori legal issues. 

Khylee is a member of the New Zealand Parole Board and is current chair of the New Zealand Drug Foundation. She is mum to three teenagers, with her partner David.





Professor Jennifer Brown

Jennifer is currently a visiting professor at the Mannheim Centre for the study of Criminology and Criminal Justice, London School of Economics and Political Science. She has research interests in and published widely on evidence-based policing, police occupational culture, gender and policing and police decision making in serious crime.

She is a chartered occupational and a chartered forensic psychologist. Jennifer worked for 7 years as a research manager for a British police force thereafter running a forensic psychology masters programme at the University of Surrey. In 2012 she was appointed as the deputy chair of Lord Steven's enquiry into the future of policing in the UK and in 2019 became a member for the Mayor of London's Policing and Crime Ethics Panel.



Update to Expert Panel membership – May 2022

We welcome Dr Andrew Chen to the Expert Panel who has replaced  Kirikowhai Mikaere. Kirikowhai resigned in early April to engage in other work commitments. 

“I'm delighted to welcome Andrew on to the Expert Panel. Over the past few years, he's brought a hugely impressive level of incisive but constructive scrutiny to new technologies in Police and how they affect the public, and I know he'll be a tremendous asset for us,” says Professor Gavaghan.

NZ Police are very grateful for Kirikowhai’s contribution to the Panel’s establishment and in providing advice which is helping Police to have a fuller understanding of the impacts of technology use on our people and communities to better inform decisions. Kirikowhai has been an integral part of informing our consideration of the use of technology, and the guiding policies and frameworks. “Kirikowhai has made a valuable contribution to the early days of the Panel, and we all express our sincere gratitude and best wishes for her future endeavours,” says Professor Colin Gavaghan.